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海龟不归

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一些在国外留学的中国人在择业时倾向继续在海外发展。

29岁的石磊即将从纽约的一所常春藤名校金融博士项目毕业。和今夏大多数毕业生一样,他正在焦头烂额地找工作,“我现在已经面试了许多地方,基本方向已经确定了,我会留在美国从事教职,或者去新加坡和香港。”

不过,虽然北京的某所顶尖高校也主动向石磊伸出橄榄枝,且给他安排了不少机会,但他却说,他并不会回国发展。“国内的不少大学虽然硬件设施好,但意识形态对学术干扰太多,且没有自由的学术环境,” 他对BBC中文网记者说。

石磊念的是金融专业,但他说今年初在那所北京的大学面试时,却要经过多位党委副书记的拷问,回答他们与学术无关的问题。“我很难想象,若真的去了那里,我是否还真能专心做研究,或者这所大学是否真的是做研究的地方,”他对BBC中文网记者说。因为顾及隐私,石磊是用化名接受采访的。

虽然中国国家主席习近平不久前提出了“中国梦”,但对石磊这样在海外受过良好高等教育的知识分子和一些财富精英来说,他们更希望寻找一个与中国无关的梦。

专门追踪中国富人财富的《胡润财富报告》去年也在一份报告中说,64%的净资产超过100万美元的中国人都正在移民或有这样的打算。据统计,许多财富和知识精英都去了美国。美国国土安全部门的数据显示,2013年,超过35000中国大陆人成为美国公民,将近72000中国大陆人获得美国绿卡。

“脑力流失”

近年来,中国经济发展迅速,跻身世界强国之列。但中国特有的文化、制度和行事方式使一些海外学子放弃回国发展。

社会学家将这种现象称为“脑力流失”。这是许多非工业化国家人力资源开发时面临的难题。尽管上世纪90年代以来,中国政府曾出台多种措施吸引海外高等留学人才回归,但越来越多的证据表明,这些措施只是形成了短暂的“脑力回流”,并未能鼓励更多的知识精英全职归国发展。

“这是个严重的问题,”14岁就从中国移民美国的纽约哥伦比亚大学商学院助理教授王丹珺对BBC中文网记说,“很多时候,中国特有的文化、制度和行事方式,阻碍了许多有知识、有想法的人进一步为中国的经济作出贡献。”

这一发现并非独特。香港科技大学中国跨国研究所所长崔大伟(David Zweig)近期与他的团队在研究中国“千人计划”和“长江学者”计划时指出,那些短期受聘的学者要好过长期受聘的学者。

“换而言之,那些在海外已经十分出色的研究人员并不会因为中国的条件好而放弃海外的职位全职回国,”他在接受BBC中文网记者电话采访时表示,“这更说明中国的研究环境还不够理想。”

这也引发了中国官方的担忧。中共党报《人民日报》曾警告说,中国是目前世界上数量最大、损失最多的人才流失国。“就绝对规模而言,中国人才的外流数量的确称冠全球。”

一项早期的研究显示,从1978年至2002年,有将近58万名学生与学者走出国门到海外留学,但最终回国的只有16万人。不少分析人士说,近年来出现的“移民潮”和中国大学系统内的腐败和丑闻更进一步减少了它们的吸引力。

不过,也有学者认为这一问题没有太大担心必要。牛津大学东方学系的讲师徐力恒就认为,这只是各行业人才全球化趋势的表现罢了。“(这说明现在人才的)流动性增强了,”他对BBC中文网记者说,“总体来说,我没有觉得希望回国的毕业生少了。”

体制改革难

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中国的空气污染和食品安全等问题也是一些海外学子放弃回国的因素。

对中国来说,在新一轮经济转型的当下,让各类人才能够真正回流至关重要。习近平也曾就此发表谈话,说中国要“实行更加开放的人才政策”,且“择天下英才而用之”。不过从目前中国政府的做法来看,仅靠多一些的科研经费和更好的科研设施投资,效果并不长久。

“当中国的城市和企业在招收海外留学的中国学生时,他们实际上是在争夺全球化的人才,”美国耶鲁大学法学院中国中心的高级研究员魏光明(Graham Webster)对BBC中文网记者说,“由于包括空气污染和房价等因素,无论是中国公司还是外国公司都发现,很难对国际化人才有吸引力。”

即将毕业的石磊认同这样的说法。“我周围的很多人都有这样的想法,”他说,“虽然国内的一些公司给的工资高,发展前景好,若是教职的话机会也多,晋升很快,但将食品安全、学术自由和空气污染等因素加进来,生活和工作成本实际上是更高的。”

崔大伟认为,石磊担忧的问题恰是目前中国人才系统中的关键议题。他关注中国的学术和“脑力流失”问题多年,虽然近期学术圈并没有受到太多习近平反腐运动的冲击,“但一个大问题是近期的意识形态控制(趋紧),”他说。

除此之外,官员权力过大,高校科研机构人际关系太复杂,以及科研经费不透明等问题都让中国的高校变得不具吸引力。“这些问题都不是新问题,且中国的领导人都知道这些问题的存在,”崔大伟对BBC中文网记者说。

2012年6月,崔大伟受时任中共中央组织部部长李源潮邀请谈论他的研究发现。他对李源潮提出了上述中国科研机构存在的棘手问题。他表示,李源潮当时认同他的发现,也表达了要改革这一体制的意愿,增加中国高校的吸引力。

“但他不久后就被调任国家副主席,离开了人事系统,这意味着他无法再对人事系统进行干涉。在我看来,他也被这套系统打败了。”

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