集成

智慧的传递与汇集不是分享,而是汲取

海龟不归

150107120557_cn_china_ccp_emblem_flag_976x549_gettyimages

一些在国外留学的中国人在择业时倾向继续在海外发展。

29岁的石磊即将从纽约的一所常春藤名校金融博士项目毕业。和今夏大多数毕业生一样,他正在焦头烂额地找工作,“我现在已经面试了许多地方,基本方向已经确定了,我会留在美国从事教职,或者去新加坡和香港。”

不过,虽然北京的某所顶尖高校也主动向石磊伸出橄榄枝,且给他安排了不少机会,但他却说,他并不会回国发展。“国内的不少大学虽然硬件设施好,但意识形态对学术干扰太多,且没有自由的学术环境,” 他对BBC中文网记者说。

石磊念的是金融专业,但他说今年初在那所北京的大学面试时,却要经过多位党委副书记的拷问,回答他们与学术无关的问题。“我很难想象,若真的去了那里,我是否还真能专心做研究,或者这所大学是否真的是做研究的地方,”他对BBC中文网记者说。因为顾及隐私,石磊是用化名接受采访的。

虽然中国国家主席习近平不久前提出了“中国梦”,但对石磊这样在海外受过良好高等教育的知识分子和一些财富精英来说,他们更希望寻找一个与中国无关的梦。

专门追踪中国富人财富的《胡润财富报告》去年也在一份报告中说,64%的净资产超过100万美元的中国人都正在移民或有这样的打算。据统计,许多财富和知识精英都去了美国。美国国土安全部门的数据显示,2013年,超过35000中国大陆人成为美国公民,将近72000中国大陆人获得美国绿卡。

“脑力流失”

近年来,中国经济发展迅速,跻身世界强国之列。但中国特有的文化、制度和行事方式使一些海外学子放弃回国发展。

社会学家将这种现象称为“脑力流失”。这是许多非工业化国家人力资源开发时面临的难题。尽管上世纪90年代以来,中国政府曾出台多种措施吸引海外高等留学人才回归,但越来越多的证据表明,这些措施只是形成了短暂的“脑力回流”,并未能鼓励更多的知识精英全职归国发展。

“这是个严重的问题,”14岁就从中国移民美国的纽约哥伦比亚大学商学院助理教授王丹珺对BBC中文网记说,“很多时候,中国特有的文化、制度和行事方式,阻碍了许多有知识、有想法的人进一步为中国的经济作出贡献。”

这一发现并非独特。香港科技大学中国跨国研究所所长崔大伟(David Zweig)近期与他的团队在研究中国“千人计划”和“长江学者”计划时指出,那些短期受聘的学者要好过长期受聘的学者。

“换而言之,那些在海外已经十分出色的研究人员并不会因为中国的条件好而放弃海外的职位全职回国,”他在接受BBC中文网记者电话采访时表示,“这更说明中国的研究环境还不够理想。”

这也引发了中国官方的担忧。中共党报《人民日报》曾警告说,中国是目前世界上数量最大、损失最多的人才流失国。“就绝对规模而言,中国人才的外流数量的确称冠全球。”

一项早期的研究显示,从1978年至2002年,有将近58万名学生与学者走出国门到海外留学,但最终回国的只有16万人。不少分析人士说,近年来出现的“移民潮”和中国大学系统内的腐败和丑闻更进一步减少了它们的吸引力。

不过,也有学者认为这一问题没有太大担心必要。牛津大学东方学系的讲师徐力恒就认为,这只是各行业人才全球化趋势的表现罢了。“(这说明现在人才的)流动性增强了,”他对BBC中文网记者说,“总体来说,我没有觉得希望回国的毕业生少了。”

体制改革难

150501040702_china_smog_624x351_afp_nocredit
中国的空气污染和食品安全等问题也是一些海外学子放弃回国的因素。

对中国来说,在新一轮经济转型的当下,让各类人才能够真正回流至关重要。习近平也曾就此发表谈话,说中国要“实行更加开放的人才政策”,且“择天下英才而用之”。不过从目前中国政府的做法来看,仅靠多一些的科研经费和更好的科研设施投资,效果并不长久。

“当中国的城市和企业在招收海外留学的中国学生时,他们实际上是在争夺全球化的人才,”美国耶鲁大学法学院中国中心的高级研究员魏光明(Graham Webster)对BBC中文网记者说,“由于包括空气污染和房价等因素,无论是中国公司还是外国公司都发现,很难对国际化人才有吸引力。”

即将毕业的石磊认同这样的说法。“我周围的很多人都有这样的想法,”他说,“虽然国内的一些公司给的工资高,发展前景好,若是教职的话机会也多,晋升很快,但将食品安全、学术自由和空气污染等因素加进来,生活和工作成本实际上是更高的。”

崔大伟认为,石磊担忧的问题恰是目前中国人才系统中的关键议题。他关注中国的学术和“脑力流失”问题多年,虽然近期学术圈并没有受到太多习近平反腐运动的冲击,“但一个大问题是近期的意识形态控制(趋紧),”他说。

除此之外,官员权力过大,高校科研机构人际关系太复杂,以及科研经费不透明等问题都让中国的高校变得不具吸引力。“这些问题都不是新问题,且中国的领导人都知道这些问题的存在,”崔大伟对BBC中文网记者说。

2012年6月,崔大伟受时任中共中央组织部部长李源潮邀请谈论他的研究发现。他对李源潮提出了上述中国科研机构存在的棘手问题。他表示,李源潮当时认同他的发现,也表达了要改革这一体制的意愿,增加中国高校的吸引力。

“但他不久后就被调任国家副主席,离开了人事系统,这意味着他无法再对人事系统进行干涉。在我看来,他也被这套系统打败了。”

140707094412_quit_businessman_at_beach_624x351_thinkstock

20 Comments to 海龟不归

  1. fgjlycle说道:

    An individual infected with Dengue Fever is not directly infectious to other individuals except through sharing of blood contaminated needles. buy viagra https://saresltd.com/ alternative viagraIf you have a hernia, this is the clinic to get it repaired at. Lyme DiseaseWhat to Do When You’re Bugged by Bugs Lyme DiseaseWhat’s My Lyme Disease Risk? He had an open abdominal incision and a picc line post surgery.

  2. nyhSmold说道:

    My breasts are sore, heavy, and a cup size bigger. what is viagra https://ouarzazatefilmcommission.com/ viagra purchaseIn stage III disease, the tumor is not detectable in other parts of the body besides the liver and possibly the lymph nodes close to the liver. More than one-third of women experience extreme anxiety as an early heart attack symptom. Having authoritative answers from real doctors appear at the top of those results could obviate other advice-giving platforms.

  3. munOxism说道:

    With stress cardiomyopathy, we believe that the heart muscle is overwhelmed by a massive amount of adrenaline that is suddenly produced in response to stress. soft tabs viagra https://footstepsunltd.com/ best generic viagraAttention and memory may be impaired. How Is Strep Throat Diagnosed? Indications that the binge eating is out of control, such as eating when not hungry, eating to the point of discomfort, or eating alone because of shame about the behavior.

  4. munOxism说道:

    Useful Chinese Translator Resources carlgene. viagra https://footstepsunltd.com/ discount viagraSome of the most relevant are listed below. The stadium seating… Bald Beauties Project More footagte of the Finger Rock Fire Smoke from the Finger Rock Fire in the Catalina Mountains. In considering the symptoms of high blood glucose hyperglycemia only, there are only a few conditions with similar symptoms.

  5. munOxism说道:

    Legal Notice Privacy Policy By using this site, you agree to our Legal Notice and Privacy Policy. sildenafil viagra https://footstepsunltd.com/ viagra pricesI’m always so tired and in pain. These medicines have also some side effects, so always consult your doctor before taking any such medication. Stay away if you can.

  6. fgjlycle说道:

    I breast fed for 2 days straight after birth and after 2 days I fed her Similac Advance and the rash never appeared until a couple of days ago. side effects of viagra https://saresltd.com/ name brand viagraBlood and urine samples will be taken for analysis. If you have recently made it through a first episode that consisted of full-blown symptoms, you know something about signs and symptoms already. Most cases are mild and are not considered medical emergencies.

  7. Osbourn说道:

    constantly i used to read smaller articles which as well clear their motive,
    and that is also happening with this post which I am reading at this place.

  8. fgjlycle说道:

    Primary lung cancer: Cancer that starts in the lungs. how to get viagra https://saresltd.com/ viagra overnightEarly breast cancer usually does not cause pain and there may not be any noticeable lump or symptoms, which is why mammography is vital. For more information about getting help, click here. My HIV test showed indications of early infection, signs portentous enough to prompt a doctor to diagnose me on the spot.

  9. munOxism说道:

    In New Jersey – Sussex, Warren, Morris, Hunterdon, Essex, Passaic, Hudson and Bergen Counties. viagra buy https://footstepsunltd.com/ buy viagra soft tabsMarine Corps — Marine Corps Reserve U. On average, people have about four recurrences during the first year, although this varies widely. Additionally, it is possible that there are direct cervical and uterine effects from vaginal administration.

  10. nyhSmold说道:

    The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia among Taiwanese adolescents. female viagra pills https://ouarzazatefilmcommission.com/ brand viagraThe use of diuretics requires aprescription from a medical doctor and, therefore, is notlikely to be utilized for compensatory purposes. The uterus is surgically removed with or without other organs or tissues. Stay Healthy All women should have a regular visit with a reproductive health care provider to stay healthy.

  11. munOxism说道:

    Alcohol use may also be a factor, but it’s unclear whether that alone can cause ulcers. viagra suppliers https://footstepsunltd.com/ order viagraMy sister used have extreme PMT also and also gave up tea and coffee and it went away. Reply Elise says: December 12, 2013 at 12:34 pm Thanks Heather! Which is exactly what CrowdMed provides.

  12. nyhSmold说道:

    We do not guarantee or warrant that files available for downloading through this site will be free of infection or viruses that may have contaminating or destructive properties. viagra price https://ouarzazatefilmcommission.com/ generic brands of viagra onlineHarvard Mental Health Letter 21 6 : 1—3. The other 49 residents who refused admittance for taking the measurements 16 were not at home for the scheduled measurement appointment 10 or had serious health problems 23. Although each person may experience symptoms of hearing loss differently, some of the most common symptoms may include:Audiology Clinic 2330 Post St.

  13. nyhSmold说道:

    Talk to your doctor or nurse if you have any of these symptoms. generic viagra review https://ouarzazatefilmcommission.com/ buy viagra cheapListen to the child’s feelings. Medications used to treat type 2 diabetes can have side effects. If you have appendicitis, you’ll probably feel one or all of these things: Belly pain.

  14. fgjlycle说道:

    That can be done during surgery or by drilling a hole in the skull to extract a tissue sample. free viagra https://saresltd.com/ viagra pharmacyIt would be important to test for chlamydia and gonorrhea during the pelvic examination. Starting school is a big step for you and your child. I just like the helpful info you provide on your articles.

  15. fgjlycle说道:

    Common symptoms include pain or tenderness, described as aching, cramping, and stabbing, particularly in the lower abdomen or pelvic region. viagra buy https://saresltd.com/ side effects of viagraI have wondered the past few years if i had something wrong with my thyroid. Diuretics and beta-blockers are the most common types of medications used to treat high blood pressure initially, upon diagnosis. There is also no vaccine currently available to prevent dengue.

  16. nyhSmold说道:

    So you head to a doctor, who may run a test or two. online pharmacy viagra https://ouarzazatefilmcommission.com/ lowest price viagraThe symptoms tend to ebb and flow, but can be exacerbated during times of stress. Explains what nerves are affected in each type of diabetic neuropathy. Click here to share your thoughts about using the tool.

  17. fgjlycle说道:

    Viruses most often spread between people who are in close contact with each other. purchase viagra online https://saresltd.com/ viagra priceMany patients but not all with paraesophageal hernias may also suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. Virtual colonoscopy also called CT colonoscopy A CT computerized tomography scan creates cross section images of the body, which may show cancer or its spread to other organs. Herpes simplex that affects the mouth and eyes is generally called type 1 or HSV-1, while HSV affecting the genitals is type 2 or HSV-2.

  18. nyhSmold说道:

    A pregnant woman could have all of these symptoms, or maybe have only one or two. buy cheap purchase uk viagra https://ouarzazatefilmcommission.com/ viagra patent expiration dateI ovulated on the 2nd of Feb, 6 days later Feb 8 I had these sort of sharp little stabbing cramps on my right side near my uterus. Reasons for Medication No… If you have appendicitis, your pain will increase when the doctor gently presses on your lower right belly.

  19. fgjlycle说道:

    I just want some advice on this. viagra for sale https://saresltd.com/ viagra priceI am scheduled for abdominoplasty with liposuction. No drugs are FDA-approved for the treatment of heartworm disease in ferrets. Most doctors prefer to use CT scans to look at the stomach.

  20. fgjlycle说道:

    Jason says: “As medicine become more complex and the shortage of GPs gets worse, it is becoming vital for patients to become better informed about their own health. viagra https://saresltd.com/ buy viagra ukAccessed March 26, 2014. Treating Cancer Based on Type Type Ductal carcinoma in situ cancer confined to the milk ducts of the breast Removal of the tumor and a large amount of surrounding normal tissue wide excision with or without radiation therapy Lobular carcinoma in situ cancer confined to the milk-producing glands of the breast Tamoxifen or, for some postmenopausal women, raloxifene to reduce the risk of invasive cancer Rarely, bilateral mastectomy removal of both breasts to prevent invasive cancers Chemotherapy before surgery if the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters about 2 inches or is stuck to the chest wall Breast-conserving surgery to remove the tumor and some surrounding tissue, usually followed by radiation therapy After surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, trastuzumab, or a combination, except in some postmenopausal women with tumors smaller than 1 centimeter about 0. As cancerous lymphocytes spread into other tissues this can decrease the body’s ability to fight infection.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。